Monthly Archives: July 2020

Animal deaths in the Australian bushfires even greater than first feared – and what about the plants?

2019-12-27 15.07.16

Earlier this year I reported on the unprecedented Australian bushfires with some reflections of what I was observing during my time as a Visiting Research Fellow at the University of New South Wales – see: How are the Australian bushfires affecting biodiversity? Australia reflections part 4.   Karin also wrote a piece about the fires, focusing on the human impacts – see: Climate Change Stories From a Nation on Fire.

At the time scientists and the media were suggesting that perhaps half a billion reptiles, mammals and birds had been killed, a figure that provoked a strong public reaction when accompanied by images of fire-scorched koalas.  This was then revised upwards to 1 billion. But it turns out that even a billion is nowhere close to the real number of animal deaths.  A new interim report commissioned by WWF-Australia suggests that just under 3 billion animals were either directly killed or displaced.  Those which were displaced were vulnerable to feral predators such as foxes and cats, or more likely to succumb to starvation. An article in The Guardian about the WWF-Australia report is worth reading – here’s the link.

The actual figure is 2.69 billion individual animals.  Think about that for a moment.  That’s about equivalent the number of people living in India and China combined.  This is the breakdown for the different animal groups that were assessed:

● 143 million mammals
● 2.46 billion reptiles
● 180 million birds
● 51 million frogs

One thing should be immediately apparent: this is not a complete list of the “animals” that have been killed.  A lack of data means that fish, turtles and (crucially) invertebrates such as spiders, bees, beetles, and earthworms, were excluded.  Those invertebrates live at much higher densities than any of the animal groups that were assessed and indeed are the sole or principle food for many of those species.  The number of insects required to support just the insectivorous birds is staggering: globally, birds are estimated to eat 400-500 million tonnes of insects and other arthropods every year.

Even if we were to consider just the larger invertebrates, those bigger than say 0.5 cm in length (which are a minority – most are considerably smaller), then then the true scale of the animal deaths is going to be one or two orders of magnitude higher.  Or possibly more.  Thirty billion, 300 billion, 3 trillion…?  Who knows?  It’s impossible to estimate, we just don’t have enough information about those organisms.

The other major component of wildlife that is missing from the report is the plants.  I know that studies of plant mortality are being undertaken at the moment and it will be important that this is given the same level of publicity as the assessments of animals.

Writing in the foreword of the report, Dermot O’Gorman the CEO of WWF-Australia pointed out that: “It’s hard to think of another event anywhere in the world in living memory that has killed or displaced that many animals. This ranks as one of the worst wildlife disasters in modern history”.

I disagree.  I think it’s THE worst wildlife disaster in terms of the scale of animal losses over such a short period of time.  No doubt deforestation and destruction of grasslands in South America, Asia and Africa has killed more animals and plants.  But that’s over a timescale of decades to hundreds of years.  Australian wildlife was devastated in a matter of months. And no one knows exactly what the 2020-21 fire season will bring.  But I think that we can safely predict further impacts on wildlife – and people.


A simple online ecosystem model: like Tamagotchi for the green generation

Orb farm

Recently I came across an online game based on a simple cellular automaton model called in which you have to design an enclosed ecosystem that supports plant, animal and bacterial life.  It’s a little bit addictive and a lot of fun! Reminds me of a more sophisticated form of the Tamagotchi, but without the ridiculous waste of plastic, metal and electronics that inevitably comes with these kids’ crazes.

When I tweeted about this earlier in the week the most excitement was generated by some scientists who actually work in lake ecosystem ecology.  They were very impressed!  The occasional Easter Eggs that appear also keep you hooked.  Helpfully, you can also close down your browser or computer and your ecosystem is still there when you open it up again. is by Max Bittker and I hope that he develops it further.  I can see it being used for some serious experiments as well as being educational and fun.

Get a 30% discount if you pre-order my new book Pollinators & Pollination: Nature and Society


In the next few months my new book Pollinators & Pollination: Nature and Society will be published.  As you can imagine, I’m very excited! The book is currently available to pre-order: you can find full details here at the Pelagic Publishing website.  If you do pre-order it you can claim a 30% discount by using the pre-publication offer code POLLINATOR.

As with my blog, the book is aimed at a very broad audience including the interested public, gardeners, conservationists, and scientists working in the various sub-fields of pollinator and pollination research. The chapter titles are as follows:

Preface and Acknowledgements
1. The importance of pollinators and pollination
2. More than just bees: the diversity of pollinators
3. To be a flower
4. Fidelity and promiscuity in Darwin’s entangled bank
5. The evolution of pollination strategies
6. A matter of time: from daily cycles to climate change
7. Agricultural perspectives
8. Urban environments
9. The significance of gardens
10. Shifting fates of pollinators
11. New bees on the block
12. Managing, restoring and connecting habitats
13. The politics of pollination
14. Studying pollinators and pollination